(also spelled cornelian
) is a brownish-red mineral
commonly used as a semi-precious gemstone
. Similar to carnelian is sard
, which is generally harder and darker (the difference is not rigidly defined, and the two names are often used interchangeably). Both carnelian and sard are varieties of the silica
colored by impurities of iron oxide
. The color can vary greatly, ranging from pale orange to an intense almost-black coloration. It is most commonly found in Brazil, India, Russia (Siberia), and Germany.